|Cell culture supernatant||91%||82%-96%|
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, also known as CD54) is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is critical for the firm attachment and transmigration of leukocytes out of blood vessels and into tissues. ICAM-1 is expressed by several cell types, typically on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system, and its expression can be up-regulated by various stimuli, including TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1 and thrombin. It is a ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1, serves as a receptor for rhinovirus, and is one of several receptors used by Plasmodium falciparum. Soluble form of ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) has been measured in various body fluids, with increased levels being found in serum from patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases.