|Cell culture supernatant||95%||79%-120%|
Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, also known as CD279) is an immunoinhibitory receptor that belongs to the CD28/CTLA-4 subfamily of the Ig superfamily. It is a 288 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane protein composed of one Ig superfamily domain, a stalk, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) as well as an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM). PD-1 can be expressed on T cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, activated monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). Engagement of PD-1 by its ligands PD-L1 or PD-L2 transduces a signal that inhibits T-cell proliferation, cytokine production, and cytolytic function. It is critical for the regulation of T cell function during tolerance, autoimmunity and infection. Blockade of PD-1 can overcome immune resistance and also has been shown to have antitumor activity.