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Microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) [dimethylaniline monooxygenase (N-oxide forming) catalyze the FAD-, NADPH- and O2-dependent oxidation of a large number of structurally diverse compounds, including drugs, pesticides, and industrial chemicals containing a soft nucleophile(PMID:12488558 ). FMO5, which belongs to the FMO family, is a lesser component of human liver microsomes and is present at about one-third the level of FMO3. FMO5 protein is also present at very low levels in kidney, however, FMO5 exhibits a severely restricted substrate specificity for most drugs and other xenobiotics examined to date(PMID:10950857). It has 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing.