BMP7, also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1, plays a key role in the transformation of mesenchymal cells into bone and cartilage. BMP7 is a glycosylated disulfide-linked 36 kDa homodimeric protein, having role in the induction, development, and regulation of adipocytes, especially brown adipose tissue (BAT). BMP7 is expressed in the brain, kidneys and bladder. BMP7 is also present in cancers, including breast, prostate, and colon cancers, in which it is implicated in regulating cancer cell proliferation. Overexpression of BMP7 mRNA in colorectal cancer patients was significantly associated with poor prognosis and low overall survival. Recent studies suggest that high-expression level of BMP7 serves as a biomarker for poor prognosis for HCC.