CXCL10 ( also known as IP-10) is a member of the CXC chemokine family which binds to the CXCR3 receptor to exert its biological effects. CXCL10 is a 12-kDa protein and constitutes two internal disulfide cross bridges. The predicted signal peptidase cleavage generates a 10-kDa secreted polypeptide with four conserved cysteine residues in the N-terminal. The CXCL10 gene localizes on chromosome 4 at band q21, a locus associated with an acute monocytic/B-lymphocyte lineage leukemia exhibiting translocation of t (4; 11) (q21; q23). CXCL10 mediates leukocyte trafficking, adaptive immunity, inflammation, haematopoiesis and angiogenesis. Under proinflammatory conditions CXCL10 is secreted from a variety of cells, such as leukocytes, activated neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, stromal cells (fibroblasts) and keratinocytes in response to IFN-γ.