|Cell culture supernatants||107%||93%-119%|
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), is a protein of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily. GDF-15 is a stress-induced cytokine and associated with hypoxia, inﬂammation and oxidative stress, it is also released from endothelial cells after stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its levels are elevated in diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. GDF-15 is associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammatory diseases. GDF-15 may have a paracrine role in the modulation of adipose tissue function and body fat mass. GDF-15 is highly expressed in the placenta. GDF-15 is known to be involved in human embryo development and necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy.