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Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) constitute a set of polypeptides that contribute to mRNA transcription, premRNA processing as well as mature mRNA transport to the cytoplasm and translation. They also bind heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA), which are the transcripts produced by RNA polymerase II. hnRNP A1 functions in the packaging of nascent RNA polymerase II transcripts and participates in a variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic processes that modulate gene expression. The RNA binding characteristics of hnRNP A1 suggest that it can modulate the expression of specific genes.