Vimentin, also named as VIM, belongs to the intermediate filament family. Vimentin is class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. Vimentin is important for stabilizing the architecture of the cytoplasm. Monocyte-derived macrophages secrete vimentin into the extracellular space in vitro. Secretion of vimentin was enhanced by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA; 191160) and inhibited by the antiinflammatory cytokine IL10 (124092), suggesting that vimentin is involved in the immune response. Vimentin has specialized functions that contribute to specific dynamic cellular processes. As a phosphoprotein, 55-60 kDa of vimentin proteins can be observed due to the different phosphorylation level. Isoforms of vimentin (49 kDa and 60 kDa) had also been reported. (PMID: 8640945, 22728585).